On Monday I gave a talk at DOES18 called “All the World’s a Platform”, where I talked about a bunch of the lessons learned by using and abusing and running and building platforms at scale.
I promised to do a blog post with the takeaways, so here they are.
Platform Commandment #1: Any time you have to think about one particular user, you have failed in some way. It doesn’t scale. Just a few one-offs a day will drag you down and drown your forward momentum.
Corollary: you will always have to do this every day. Solution: turn one-offs into a support problem, not an engineering problem.
Platform Commandment #2: keep your critical path as small and independent as possible. Have explicit tiers of importance. You cannot care about everything equally, sacrifices must be made.
Example: at Parse the core API was tier 1, push was tier 2, website was somewhere down around tier 10. We always knew what to bring up and care about first.
Platform Commandment #3: It is the job of the platform to protect itself at all costs, including at the expense of your app.
Platform Commandment #4: Remember that your platform is a magical black box to your users. You can’t expect them to behave reasonably without feedback loops and a rich mental model. Help them out — esp your super-users. It will save you time if you can help them help themselves.
Platform Commandment #5: Always expose a visible request id, shard id, uuid, trace id, any other relevant diagnostic information in user-visible errors. Up to the point where it reveals too much exploitable information about your service, which is probably much farther than you think. Poorly obfuscated infrastructure decisions are usually less of a threat to your business than befuddled users are.
Platform Commandment #6: Your observability must center your users’ perspective, not your own. The health of the system doesn’t matter. The health of every request, and every high-cardinality grouping of requests — those are what matter.
You must be able to care about and inspect the perf and quality from the perspective of every single application and/or user and their users, as richly as though theirs was the *only* application.In real-time.
Dashboards are practically useless unless you can drill down into them. Top-10 lists are useless — your biggest customers may not be your most important customers.
Solution: Invest in tooling (like Honeycomb) that lets you slice and dice on dimensions of arbitrary cardinality, so you can do things like a) break down by one uuid out of millions, b) break down by endpoint, latency percentile, raw query, data store, etc — to see what the experience actually looks like for that user, not for a high level aggregate like a dashboard.
Platform Commandment #7: Use end-to-end checks to traverse all the key code paths and architecture paths.
You will be tempted to disable them because they seem flappy and flaky and need to be fixed.But this is actually what your users are suffering through every day they use your platform. Don’t disable them, fix them.
Platform Commandment #8: Invest early in every kind of throttle, blacklist, velvet rope, in-flight rewrite, custom url/error responder, content inspection, etc … both partial and total, for every slice of events or users. You will need all these fine-grained controls to keep your platform alive for 99.9% of users while you debug the .1% who are outliers and bad actors.
Platform Commandment #9: And use a multi-threaded language ffs.
Platform Commandment #10: USE YOUR OWN PLATFORM. For work, if possible. Feel the pain that you inflict on others.
Bonus Commandment: all cotenancy isolation guarantees are bullshit**
Okay! As of today it’s been one week since I wrote some advice and the internet exploded in my face, so now it’s time to do what I always do: post mortem that shit.
This is going to be long. I erred by making my first post too short, so I’m going to ship $(allthedetail) this time. Duly warned.
Around 8 am on Friday, March 2nd, after pulling an all-nighter, I decided to pound out a quick blog post that has been on my todo list forever: the only advice I feel equipped to give on how to succeed in tech.
My advice, in brief, was this:
as a junior engineer, tough it out. work hard, learn everything, earn your stripes.
stay technical. don’t get sucked into an offramp unless you are god damn sure you want out for good.
once you are senior, use your power to advocate for others and fuck that shit up.
Money, power, credibility. This is the best way I know how to earn these things. This is what worked for me and most of the senior technical women I know and admire.
First of all: I don’t think there should be anything controversial at all about this advice. It’s good advice, if a bit bluntly put. Pick your battles, show strategic impact, leverage your influence into power and use that power to fuck shit up in the manner of your choosing.
The fact is, we are far too chickenshit about telling young women straight up how to succeed at work. We praise them for all kinds of dumb shit and second shift work and emotional labor that has little if any strategic impact to the bottom line, and wonder why they’re burned out and resentful.
We live in a fallen world. I didn’t make it this way, I just want to help you level up to be a powerful destroyer being so you can make it better.
So I hit “publish”.
Around 9:30 am, Camille Fournier gave me a bunch of unsolicited criticism. Unfortunately, due to some sour personal history with Camille I was extremely not disposed to receive this from her. I can be a resentful little shit: as soon as she told me to change it in certain ways, it was the last fucking thing in the world I was going to do.
For a few hours, all the feedback was good. People liked my advice to stay technical (“god I wish someone had told me that 15 years ago”) and my pointing out the loophole that lets women advocate for each other without being penalized.
A few people nailed what I was trying to say even better than I did:
But by the end of the day I was receiving a steady stream of angry tweets from people I had never heard of, with objections that seemed puzzling and ridiculous to me.
They were acting as though the sum total of my advice had been ordering bullied and abused people to just shut up and tough it out. Soon I was getting tweets accusing me of trashing all diversity work, trashing all women, only being out for myself and my own career, erasing sexual assault, being insensitive and destructive to people of color, and on and on.
People were subtweeting me like crazy, or DM’ing me telling me how much they liked my piece but were afraid to say so in public. Others were harassing my engineering managers and people who follow me.
I have never received textual scrutiny of this type before, where every single word was turned over and macerated and peered at for evidence of traitorous views. It sucks. (And it’s pretty hypocritical, to say the least … some of these same women who were gleefully bashing me for clumsy words remain good friends with men who are actual known harassers and abusers of women.)
Lots of people wanted me to take the post down immediately, or publish a retraction or correction immediately. Some prominent feminists publicly chided me and refused to talk to me until I repented of my sins. 🙄
Let’s be clear. I have no problem admitting my errors and making amends. I do it all the fucking time. But I am disinclined to grovel before a howling mob. It wasn’t even clear to me what I had done wrong, given all the contradictory noises.
So I decided to wait a week before responding, so I could talk to people and figure out what to take away from the mess.
(Also last week: traveled to multiple continents, flew a few dozen hours, wrote multiple talks, delivered presentations at various conferences and meetups, visited and pitched to potential customers, managed a handful of teams, fit 1x1s in between hops and time zones and you know just tried to do my fucking job while dealing with crazed nuts screaming abuse at me online.)
I had a couple of hard but helpful conversations with people like Alice Goldfuss and Courtney Nash, who took the time to walk me through ways that what I wrote may be misinterpreted or wrongly received. This feedback can mostly be bucketed into the following categories:
“Assume the reader knows nothing about you and considers you hostile until proven otherwise.” Well shit, I am not used to writing defensively. I live my life in high trust, high transparency environments and prefer it that way.
“Your advice doesn’t apply to $x.” True! I didn’t bracket it in layers of padding — “this is just what worked for me”, “may not apply to every situation” — because I thought that was freaking obvious.
“It sounds like you are shit talking all diversity efforts.” No, but I was waving vaguely in the direction of some very cynical and tired feelings on the subject. I’m pretty over corporate diversity issues and pinkwashing that doesn’t expand opportunity or share power.
“It sounds like you are shitting on all women.” Oof. This is the one that is really painful, because this is the one I have been working hard on for close to 20 years… and should have seen coming. I did intend to put some space between myself and women in tech, because I don’t exactly identify as a woman.. exactly. I grew up fundamentalist and misogynist af, and have been working hard to recover from that ever since I left home at 15.
“Maybe you shouldn’t give advice to women at all.” Courtney challenged me on whether I should speak to women, given my ambivalence wrt my own gender identification. Which is an interesting question that I have pondered a lot.
This was all desperately inevitable and predictable, however, and I made some unforced errors. So let’s talk about what I do and don’t regret about all this, and what I would or would not do differently.
NO REGRETS: giving the advice. It’s good advice, it needed to be said. I’m tired of seeing women burn themselves out on shitty corporate diversity work that only diverts their energy from amassing real power and strategic impact. Not sorry.
REGRETS: I was sloppy about waving in the direction of my gender issues. I intended to put some space between myself and “women’s issues”, because I don’t exactly identify as a woman, exactly, and I have always felt uncomfortable in women’s spaces. Given the historic devaluation of women’s spaces and issues, I should have been clearer. I am sorry.
NO REGRETS: I think it’s fine for me to give advice to women if they ask, which they do. After all I was raised as a woman, have always been read and treated as one, and assumed there was no other option for 30+ years. I get to speak. Not sorry.
SEMI-REGRETS: I still can’t figure how anyone managed to project into my piece that I was slamming all diversity work. I said somewhat colorfully that a lot of the advice didn’t work for me and wasn’t my favorite thing to dwell on, in the same grouchy grumbly tone that I use when bitching about query planners and terraform variable interpolation. I don’t think this would have been a big deal if the frenzy hadn’t gotten whipped up, but if anyone genuinely felt hurt or dismissed by it, I can be sorry for that.
REGRETS: the impact it had on my poor engineering managers and other people who work with me. They are still being asked to denounce me or defend me and their decision to work with me. So deeply not ok. I am sorry — but that’s really on you, internet assholes.
BIGGEST REGRETS: any accidental cover given to misogynists. By far the most annoying thing about the brouhaha has been when men with toxic views compliment me because they think I’m agreeing with them. I am NOT, so get off me. Sorry not sorry.
SADDEST REGRETS: my plummeting opinion of the feminist internet trash mob. I am a feminist and damn proud of it, but I am also disgusted by the hyperperformative boundary policing of certain self-proclaimed “tech feminists”. If your great joy in life is roving the interwebs looking for any toes pressing a line so you can rapturously castigate them and shun them until they have licked your boots and begged for forgiveness … if you love performing elaborate outrage rituals and whipping up a frenzy of whispers or a witch hunt… then:
Fuck. The Fuck. Off. You are an embarrassment. This is about your ego, and your manufactured grievance machines are Not Helping.
I honestly thought these feminist pile-on mobs were a right-wing fantasy, and I’m sad that I was wrong. I’m also pretty sad about all the folks who know me and have every reason to know better. In my world you check in with your friends before leaping to judgment, and you help teach each other when you’re being stupid. A pretty dismal number of people I would have called friends just leapt excitedly into the fray passing judgment.
So now I know more about who my friends are.
Why even stick my neck out? I guessed something might go wrong, I just didn’t know what. So why?
Because I want to help, dammit. The farther I get in my career the more time I spend pondering how to bring others along with me, how to open the gates a little wider.
I’ve gotten to do a few things. I have tried to create an equitable, respectful working environment where everyone can do their best work, with managers who are passionate about diversity and strong where I am weak.
But … I have felt very often alienated by the messaging and attempts to help women. I can’t be the only one who responds more to a strategic message than an empathetic one, who feels condescended to and patronized by the mainstream corporate efforts.
I can’t be the only one who feels simmering resentment every time I get held up as a successful “woman in tech” (the world’s worst participation trophy). I don’t want a fucking consolation prize. I want to sweep the competition, I want to change the world. I can’t be the only one who hungers for power, money and credibility.
I know I’m not, actually. I know because they are telling me. The response has been at least 100-1 positive in private — from junior women especially — thanking me for being brutally honest and treating them like adults, like equals. (I’ve been told there are armies of women who feel dreadfully hurt but too afraid to say so. Pity if true, as they say.)
There has always been tension between the people who see the world as it is and fight to succeed in it, and the people who opt out and refuse to participate because it’s compromised. The world needs us both. So shut the fuck up and let the kids pick for themselves.
And maybe stop persecuting the people who stand with you.
I don’t really do “women stuff”. I don’t really identify with any gender and I find a lot of the advice to be condescending and overly delicate, and it’s just a really boring thing to think and talk about. For me.
But I’m feeling guilty after turning down a bunch of requests to do shit for International Women’s Day next week. So I’m gonna do a thing I’ve been avoiding doing for years, and write down my (deeply problematic but practical) advice.
Toughen up. For your first 10 years or 3 jobs in the industry, you’re a junior contributor. You need them way more than they need you, so suck it up. Try not to dwell on the bullshit. Work hard and level up and always angle for more money and power when you can.
Stay technical. There are a thousand paved ramps out of engineering roles and only a few hard paths back in. Technical excellence is currency in this industry, even more so if your credibility is gonna get challenged again and again. So don’t stop engineering til you’re great at it.
Use your power for good. Once you become a senior contributor — and i’m not talking bullshit titles but real seniority, when people are coming to you for help far more than you go to them — then you can afford to get sensitive. …On behalf of others. The research convincingly shows that women get punished for advocating for themselves, but not for advocating for others. It’s a sweet loophole, use it.
If you feel like table flipping out of tech, just remember the rest of the world is at LEAST as sexist as tech is, but without the money and power and ridiculous life-coddling. Where exactly do you think you’re going to go?
Don’t quit tech: quit your job. There are LOTS of tolerable-to-great companies out there. If you stay and suffer, you’re just rewarding the shitholes with your presence. Don’t reward the shitholes any more than you can help it.
Learn shit, save your money, amass great power. Then use it to fuck shit up.
Last week was the West Coast Velocity conference. I had a terrific time — I think it’s the
best Velocity I’ve been to yet. I also slipped in quite late, the evening before last, to catch Gareth’s session on DevOps vs SRE.
And it was worth it! Holy crap, this was such a fun barnburner of a talk, with Gareth schizophrenically arguing both for and against the key premise of the talk, which was about “Google Infrastructure for Everyone Else (GIFEE)” and whether SRE is a) the highest, noblest goal that we should all aspire towards, or b) mostly irrelevant to anyone outside the Google confines.
Which Gareth won? Check out the slides and judge for yourself. 🙃
At some point in his talk, though, Gareth tossed out something like “Charity probably already has a blog post on this drafted up somewhere.” And I suddenly remembered “Fuck! I DO!” it’s been sitting in my Drafts for months god dammit.
So this is actually a thing I dashed off back in April, after CraftConf. Somebody asked me for my opinion on the internet — always a dangerous proposition — and I went off on a bit of a rant about the differences and similarities between DevOps and SRE, as philosophies and practices.
Time passed and I forgot about it, and then decided it was too stale. I mean who really wants to read a rehash of someone’s tweetstorm from two months ago?
Well Gareth, apparently.
SRE vs DevOps: TWO PHILOSOPHIES ENTER, BOTH ARE PHENOMENALLY SUCCESSFUL AND MUTUALLY DUBIOUS OF ONE ANOTHER
It also has some really fucking obnoxious blurbs. Things like about how “ONLY GOOGLE COULD HAVE DONE THIS”, and an whiff of snobbery throughout the book as though they actually believe this (which is far worse if true).
You can’t really blame the poor blurb’ers, but you can certainly look askance at a massive systems engineering org when it seems as though they’ve never heard of DevOps, or considered how it relates to SRE practices, and may even be completely unaware of what the rest of the industry has been up to for the past 10-plus years. It’s just a little weird.
So here, for the record, is what I said about it.
1) a lot of the philosophical volleying between devops / SRE comes down to a failure to recognize the overwhelming power of context.
Google is a great company with lots of terrific engineers, but you can only say they are THE
BEST at what they do if you’re defining what they do tautologically, i.e. “they are the best at making Google run.” Etsyans are THE BEST at running Etsy, Chefs are THE BEST at building Chef, because … that’s what they do with their lives.
Context is everything here. People who are THE BEST at Googling often flail and flame out in early startups, and vice versa. People who are THE BEST at early-stage startup engineering are rarely as happy or impactful at large, lumbering, more bureaucratic companies like Google. People who can operate equally well and be equally happy at startups and behemoths are fairly rare.
And large companies tend to get snobby and forget this. They stop hiring for unique strengths and start hiring for lack of weaknesses or “Excellence in Whiteboard Coding Techniques,” and congratulate themselves alot about being The Best. This becomes harmful when it translates into to less innovation, abysmal diversity numbers, and a slow but inexorable drift into dinosaurdom.
2) operations engineering is a specialized skill set *at large scale* or *on hard ops problems*. many -- most? companies don't have those.
Everybody thinks their problems are hard, but to a seasoned engineer, most startup problems are not technically all that hard. They’re tedious, and they are infinite, but anyone can figure this shit out. The hard stuff is the rest of it: feverish pace, the need to reevaluate and reprioritize and reorient constantly, the total responsibility, the terror and uncertainty of trying to find product/market fit and perform ten jobs at once and personally deliver to your promises to your customers.
At a large company, most of the hardest problems are bureaucratic. You have to come to terms with being a very tiny cog in a very large wheel where the org has a huge vested interest in literally making you as replicable and replaceable as possible. The pace is excruciatingly slow if you’re used to a startup. The autonony is … well, did I mention the politics? If you want autonomy, you have to master the politics.
3) the outcomes associated with operations (reliability, scalability, operability) are the responsibility of *everyone* from support to CEO.
Everyone. Operational excellence is everyone’s job. Dude, if you have a candidate come in and they’re a jerk to your office manager or your cleaning person, don’t fucking hire that person because having jerks on your team is an operational risk (not to mention, you know, like moral issues and stuff).
But the more engineering-focused your role is, the more direct your impact will be on operational outcomes.
4) therefore, the more literate you are with operational skills, the more effective and powerful you can be -- esp as a software engineer.
As a software engineer, developing strong ops chops makes you powerful. It makes you better at debugging and instrumentation, building resiliency and observability into your own systems and interdependent systems, and building systems that other people can come along and understand and maintain long after you’re gone.
As an operations engineer, those skills are already your bread and butter. You can increase your power in other ways, like by leveling up at software engineering skills like test coverage and automation, or DBA stuff like query optimization and storage engine internals, or by helping the other teams around you level up on their skills (communication and persuasion are chronically underrecognized as core operations engineering skills).
5) specialization is not a bad thing. specialization is how we scale and do capitalism! the problem is when this becomes compartmentalizing.
This doesn’t mean that everyone can or should be able to do everything. (I can’t even SAY the words “full stack engineer” without rolling my eyes.) Generalists are awesome! But past a certain inflection point, specialization is the only way an org can scale.
It’s the only way you make room for those engineering archetypes who only want to dive deep, or who really really love refactoring, or who will save the world then disappear for weeks. Those engineers can be incredibly valuable as part of a team … but they are most valuable in a large org where you have enough generalists to keep the oars rowing along in the meantime.
6) so: Google SRE has an incredibly powerful set of best practices, that enable them to run the largest site in the world incredibly well.
So, back to Google. They’ve done, ahem, rather well for themselves. Made shitbuckets of money, pushed the boundaries of tech, service hardly ever goes down. They have operational demands that most of us never have seen and never will, and their engineers are definitely to be applauded for doing a lot of hard technical and cultural labor to get there.
Mostly because it comes off a little tone deaf in places. I’m not personally pissed off by
the google SRE book, actually, just a little bemused at how legitimately unaware they seem to be about … anything else that the industry has been doing over the past 10 years, in terms of cultural transformation, turning sysadmins into better engineers, sharing on-call rotations, developing processes around empathy and cross-functionality, engineering best practices, etc.
If you try and just apply Google SRE principles to your own org according to their prescriptive model, you’re gonna be in for a really, really bad time.
However, it happens that Jen Davis and Katherine Daniels just published a book called Effective DevOps, which covers a lot of the same ground with a much more varied and inclusive approach. And one of the things they return to over and over again is the power of context, and how one-size-fits-all solutions simply don’t exist, just like unisex OSFA t-shirts are a dirty fucking lie.
Google insularity is … a thing. On the one hand it’s great that they’re opening up a bit! On the other hand it’s a little bit like when somebody barges onto a mailing list and starts spouting without skimming any of the archives. And don’t even get me started on what happens when you hire long, longterm ex-Googlers back into to the real world.
So, so many of us have had this experience of hiring ex-Googlers who automatically assume that the way Google does a thing is CORRECT, not just contextually appropriate. Not just right for Google, but right for everyone, always. Which is just obviously untrue. But the reassimilation process can be quite long and exhausting when the Kool-Aid is so strong.
8) DevOps as a philosophy is much more sensitive to context than SRE philosophy, because it grew from a broader collaborative base.
Because yeah, this is a conversation and a transformation that the industry has been having for a long time now. Compared with the SRE manifesto, the DevOps philosophy is much more crowd-sourced, more flexible, and adaptable to organizations of all stages of developments, with all different requirements and key business differentiators, because it’s benefited from loud, mouthy contributors who aren’t all working in the same bubble all along.
And it’s like Google isn’t even aware this was happening, which is weird.
9) that's it, basically all i'm saying is "all blanket statements are false" including probably this one 🙂 #devops#sre
Orrrrrr, maybe I’m just a wee bit annoyed that I’ve been drawn into this position of having to defend “DevOps”, after many excellent years spent being grumpy about the word and the 10000010101 ways it is used and abused.
(Tell me again about your “DevOps Engineering Team”, I dare you.)
(^^ thanks to @kellan and others who particularly influenced/clarified my thinking around #8, the crowdsourcing of devops)
P.S. I highly encourage you to go read the epic hours-long rant by @matthiasr that kicked off the whole thing. some of which I definitely endorse and some of which not, but I think we could go drink whiskey and yell about this for a week or two easy breezy ❤
So, a few hot takes on that …
1) SRE, as practiced by Google, is really just Ops with a lot of management support
The theme of my talk was basically: what should software engineers know and care about when it comes to operations in a world where we are outsourcing more and more core functionality?
If you care about running a quality service or product, or providing your customers with a reasonable level of service, you have to care about operational concerns like design, resiliency, instrumentation and debuggability. No matter how many abstractions there are between you and the bare metal.
If you chose a provider, you do not get to just point your finger at them in the post mortem and say it’s their fault. You chose them, it’s on you. It’s tacky to blame the software or the service, and besides your customers don’t give a shit whose “fault” it is.
So given an infinite number of things to care about, where do you start?
What is your mission, and what are your differentiators?
The first question must always be: what is your mission? Your mission is not writing software. Your mission is delivering whatever it is your customers are paying you for, and you use software to get there. (Code is kind of a liability so you should write as little of it as necessary. hey!! sounds like a good argument for #serverless!)
Second: what are your core differentiators? What are the things that you are doing that are unique, and difficult to replicate, or the things where you have to actually be world class experts in those things?
Those are the things that you will have the hardest time outsourcing, or that you should think about very carefully before outsourcing.
You can outsource labor, but you can’t outsource caring. And nobody but you is in the position to think about your core differentiators and your product in a holistic way.
If you’re a typical early startup, you’re probably using somewhere between 5 and 20 SaaS products to get rid of some of the crap work and offload it to dedicated teams who can do it better than you can, much more cheaply, so you are freed up to work on your core value proposition.
But you still have to think about things like reliability, your security model, your persistent storage models, your query performance, how all these lovely services talk to each other, how you’re going to debug them, how you’re going to repro when things go wrong, etc. You still own these things, even if you don’t run them.
For example, take AWS Lambda. It’s a pretty great service on many dimensions. It’s an early version of the future. It is also INCREDIBLY irritating and challenging to debug in a practically infinite number of insanity-inducing ways.
** Important side note — I’m talking about actual production systems. Parse, Heroku, Lambda, etc are GREAT for prototyping and can take you a long, long way. Early stage startups SHOULD optimize for agility and rapid developer iteration, not reliability. Thx to @joeemison for reminding me that i left that out of the recap.
Focus on the critical path
Your users don’t care if your internal jenkins builds are broken. They don’t care about a whole lot of things that you have to care about … eventually. They do care a lot if your product isn’t actually functional. Which means you have to think through the behavioral and failure characteristics of the providers you’re relying on in any user visible fashion.
Ask lots of questions if you can. (AWS often won’t tell you much, but smaller providers will.) Find out as much as you can about their cotenancy model (shared hardware or isolation?), their typical performance variance (run your own tests, don’t trust their claims), and the underlying storage systems.
Think about how you can bake in resiliency from the user’s perspective, that doesn’t rely on provider guarantees. If you’re on mobile, can you provide a reasonable offline experience? Like Parse did a lot of magic here in the APIs, where it would back off and retry saves if there were any errors.
Can you fail over to another provider if one is down? Is it even worth it at your company’s stage of maturity and engineering resources to invest in this?
How willing are you to be locked into a vendor or provider, and what is the story if you find yourself forced to switch? Or if that service goes away, as so many, many, many of them have done and will do. (RIP, parse.com.)
Listen, outsourcing is awesome. I do it as much as I can. I’m literally helping build a service that provides outsourced metrics, I believe in this version of the future! It’s basically the latest iteration of capitalism in a nutshell: increased complexity –> increased specialization –> you pay other people to do the job better than you –> everybody wins.
But there are tradeoffs, so let’s be real.
The service, if it is smart, will put strong constraints on how you are able to use it, so they are more likely to deliver on their reliability goals. When users have flexibility and options it creates chaos and unreliability. If the platform has to choose between your happiness vs thousands of other customers’ happiness, they will choose the many over the one every time — as they should.
Limits may mysteriously change or be invented as they are discovered, esp with fledgling services. You may be desperate for a particular feature, but you can’t build it. (This is why I went for Kafka over Kinesis.)
You need to think way more carefully and more deeply about visibility and introspection up front than you would if you were running your own services, because you have no ability to log in and use strace or gdb or tail a logfile or run any system profiling commands when things go dark.
In the best case, you’re giving up some control and quality in exchange for experts doing the work better than you could for cheaper (e.g. i’m never running a fucking physical data center again, jesus. EC24lyfe). In a common worse case, it’s less reliable than what you would build AND it’s also opaque AND you can’t tell if it’s down for you or for everyone because frankly it’s just massively harder to build a service that works for thousands/millions of use cases than for any one of them individually.
Ohhhh and let’s just briefly talk about state.
The serverless utopia mostly ignores the problems of stateful services. If pressed they will usually say DynamoDB, or Firebase, or RDS or Aurora or something.
Real question how does state get persisted with #serverless?
I understand scale out of stateless servers, but who stores the state?
This is a big, huge, deep, wide lake of crap to wade in to so all I’m going to say is that there is no such thing as having the luxury of not having to understand how your storage systems work. Queries will get slow, and you’ll need to be able to figure out why and fix them. You’ll hit scaling cliffs where suddenly a perfectly-usable app just starts timing everything out because of that extra second of latency coming from …
The hardware underlying your instance will degrade (there’s a server somewhere under all those abstractions, don’t forget). The provider will have mysterious failures. They will be better than you, probably, but less inclined to give you satisfactory progress updates because there are hundreds or thousands or millions of you all clamoring.
The more you understand about your storage system (and the more you stay in the lane of how it was intended to be used), the happier you’ll be.
These trends are both inevitable and, for the most part, very good news for everyone.
Operations engineering is becoming a more fascinating and specialized skill set. The best engineers are flocking to solve category problems — instead of building the same system at company after company, they are building SaaS solutions to solve it for the internet at large. Just look at the massive explosion in operational software offerings over the past 5-6 years.
This means that the era of the in-house dedicated ops team, which serves as an absorbent buffer for all the pain of software development, is mostly on its way out the door. (And good riddance.)
People are waking up to the fact that software quality improves when feedback loops are tighter for software engineers, which means being on call and owning services end to end. The center of gravity is shifting towards engineering teams owning the services they built.
This is awesome! You get to rent engineers from Google, AWS, Pagerduty, Pingdom, Heroku, etc for much cheaper than if you hired them in-house — if you could even get them, which you probably can’t because talent is scarce.
But the flip side of this is that application engineers need to get better at thinking in traditionally operations-oriented ways about reliability, architecture, instrumentation, visibility, security, and storage. Figure out what your core differentiators are, and own the shit out of those.
Nobody but you can care about your mission as much as you can. Own it, do it. Have fun.
I just got back from the very first ever @serverlessconf in NYC. I have a soft spot for well-curated single-track conferences, and the organizers did an incredible job. Major kudos to @iamstan and team for pulling together such a high-caliber mix of attendees as well as presenters.
I’m really honored that they asked me to speak. And I had a lot of fun delivering my talk! But in all honesty, I turned it down a few times — and then agreed, and then backed out, and then agreed again at the very last moment. I just had this feeling like the attendees weren’t going to want to hear what I was gonna say, or like we weren’t gonna be speaking the same language.
Which … turned out to be mmmmostly untrue. To the organizers’ credit, when I expressed this concern to them, they vigorously argued that they wanted me to talk *because* they wanted a heavy dose of real talk in the mix along with all the airy fairy tales of magic and success.
So #serverless is the new cloud or whatever
Hi, I’m grouchy and I work with operations and data and backend stuff. I spent 3.5 years helping Parse grow from a handful of apps to over a million. Literally building serverless before it was cool TYVM.
So when I see kids saying “the future is serverless!” and “#NoOps!” I’m like okay, that’s cute. I’ve lived the other side of this fairytale. I’ve seen what happens when application developers think they don’t have to care about the skills associated with operations engineering. When they forget that no matter how pretty the abstractions are, you’re still dealing with dusty old concepts like “persistent state” and “queries” and “unavailability” and so forth, or when they literally just think they can throw money at a service to make it go faster because that’s totally how services work.
I’m going to split this up into two posts. I’ll write up a recap of my talk in a sec, but first let’s get some things straight. Like words. Like operations.
What is operations?
Let’s talk about what “operations” actually means, in the year 2016, assuming a reasonably high-functioning engineering environment.
At a macro level, operational excellence is not a role, it’s an emergent property. It is how you get shit done.
Operations is the sum of all of the skills, knowledge and values that your company has built up around the practice of shipping and maintaining quality systems and software.It’s your implicit values as well as your explicit values, habits, tribal knowledge, reward systems.Everybody from tech support to product people to CEO participates in your operational outcomes, even though some roles are obviously more specialized than others.
Saying you have an ops team who is solely responsible for reliability is about as silly as saying that “HR defines and owns our company culture!” No. Managers and HR professionals may have particular skills and responsibilities, but culture is an emergent property and everyone contributes (and it only takes a couple bad actors to spoil the bushel).
Thinking about operational quality in terms of “a thing some other team is responsible for” is just generally not associated with great outcomes. It leads to software engineers who are less proficient or connected to their outcomes, ops teams who get burned out, and an overall lower quality of software and services that get shipped to customers.
These are the specialized skill sets that I associate with really good operations engineers. Do these look optional to you?
It depends on your mission, but usually these are not particularly optional. If you have customers, you need to care about these things. Whether you have a dedicated ops team or not. And you need to care about the tax it imposes on your humans too, especially when it comes to the cognitive overhead of complex systems.
So this is my definition of operations. It doesn’t have to be your definition. But I think it is a valuable framework for helping us reason about shipping quality software and healthy teams. Especially given the often invisible nature of operations labor when it’s done really well. It’s so much easier to notice and reward shipping shiny features than “something didn’t break”.
The inglorious past
Don’t get me wrong — I understand why “operations” has fallen out of favor in a lot of crowds. I get why Google came up with “SRE” to draw a line between what they needed and what the average “sysadmin” was doing 10+ years ago.
Ops culture has a number of well-known and well-documented pathologies: hero/martyr complexes, risk aversion, burnout, etc. I understand why this is offputting and we need to fix it.
Also, historically speaking, ops has attracted a greater proportion of nontraditional oddballs who just love debugging and building things — fewer Stanford CS PhDs, more tinkerers and liberal arts majors and college dropouts (hi). And so they got paid less, and had less engineering discipline, and burned themselves out doing too much ad hoc labor.
But — this is no longer our overwhelming reality, and it is certainly not the reality we are hurtling towards. Thanks to the SRE movement, and the parallel and even more powerful & diverse open source DevOps movement, operations engineers are … engineers. Who specialize in infrastructure. And there’s more value than ever in empathy and fluid skill sets, in engineers who are capable of moving between disciplines and translating between specialties. This is where the “full-stack developer” buzzword comes from. It’s annoying, but reflects a real craving for generalist skill sets.
The BOFH stereotype is dead. Some of the most creative cultural and technical changes in the technical landscape are being driven by the teams most identified with operations and developer tooling. The best software engineers I know are the ones who consistently value the impact and lifecycle of the code they ship, and value deployment and instrumentation and observability. In other words, they rock at ops stuff.
The Glorious Future
And so I think it’s time to bring back “operations” as a term of pride. As a thing that is valued, and rewarded. As a thing that every single person in an org understands as being critical to success. Every organization has unique operational needs, and figuring out what they are and delivering on them takes a lot of creativity and ingenuity on both the cultural and technical front.
“Operations” comes with baggage, no doubt. But I just don’t think that distance and denial are an effective approach for making something better, let alone trash talking and devaluing the skill sets that you need to deliver quality services.
You don’t make operational outcomes magically better by renaming the team “DevOps” or “SRE” or anything else. You make it better by naming it and claiming it for what it is, and helping everyone understand how their role relates to your operational objectives.
And now that I have written this blog post I can stop arguing with people who want to talk about “DevOps Engineers” and whether “#NoOps” is a thing and maybe I can even stop trolling them back about the nascent “#NoDevs” movement. (Haha just kidding, that one is too much fun.)
I mean how hard can it be to just glue together APIs that other people have written and support and scale? 🤔 #serverless#NoDevs
Here is a thing that more people need to know: nail polish is the toughest, brightest, sparkliest, most durable paint in the world. It makes everything prettier and brighter and it lasts forever.
I have a tradition of always painting a new keyboard every time I start a new job. Please witness exhibit A, my freshly painted Hound keyboard & num pad:
Doesn’t that just make you happy to look at? The idea of typing on a plain beige or black keyboard all day long is … actually one of the more depressing things I can imagine.
Now check out the one I painted when I started at Parse and usednearly every day for almost 4 years:
Still pretty cute, right? It’s a little dingy and a few chips here or there but is there literally any other paint on earth that would have taken this abuse for four years? (And you can’t even tell how pretty the shimmery holographic silver keys are in this pic.)
Dude, it gets better. My work laptop:
And since I got my work and personal laptops around the same time, I made them fraternal twins.
Yo, this shit can bang around in my laptop bag for *years* and never chip or wear off or fade. Nail polish is the most badass paint in the entire world.
(The only thing I will not paint is my fingernails, I hate painted nails.)
I really really wish I had saved pictures of all the laptops and keyboards and monitors and mice and cell phones and other crap I have painted over the last decade or so. But here are a few of the pics and pieces I still have lying around:
former personal laptop
flowery helmet side 2
after riding over GG bridge
a former work laptop
another old work laptop
People keep asking me where I get my laptop “stickers”, or my awesome keyboards, and now you know.
Nail polish. It is the shit.
Pro tip #1: if you want to paint bright colors on a black background, you need to lay down a very light base first. Surprisingly, white doesn’t work well, it’s not opaque enough and ends up looking streaky. You need something reflective, like silver aluminum foil or silver chrome — maybe this? Dunno, I have a big stash so I haven’t really bought anything new in years and can’t recommend specific brands.
Pro Tip #2: cheap polish is A-OK. Those 99 cent bottles are fine, just select for opacity. Sheer colors don’t work very well, if you have to apply more than 2-3 coats it will get globby and weird as well as being tedious.
Pro Tip #3:sketch your designs out with a pencil before you paint them (easily erasable), and apply a top coat the next day to make everything even shinier and longer-lasting.